Basic Accounting

Here's some more of the basics of accounting for your knowledge.


10/23/20232 min read

person holding paper near pen and calculator
person holding paper near pen and calculator

Basic Accounting

Accounting basics are fundamental principles that apply to businesses in Malaysia as well as globally. Proper accounting practices help businesses maintain accurate financial records, make informed decisions, and meet regulatory requirements. Here's an overview of accounting basics in the context of Malaysia, along with examples:

1. Double-Entry Bookkeeping:

  • Double-entry bookkeeping is the foundation of accounting. Every transaction affects at least two accounts, ensuring that debits and credits are balanced.

  • Example: A Malaysian retail store records a sale of RM1,000 by debiting the Sales Revenue account and crediting the Accounts Receivable account.

2. Chart of Accounts:

  • The chart of accounts is a structured list of all accounts used to categorize financial transactions, making it easier to organize and track financial data.

  • Example: A Malaysian manufacturing company's chart of accounts includes accounts such as Cash, Accounts Payable, Inventory, and Utilities Expense.

3. Recording Transactions:

  • Businesses record financial transactions using journal entries. Each entry includes the date, accounts affected, amount, and description of the transaction.

  • Example: A Malaysian service provider records a rent payment of RM2,000 by debiting Rent Expense and crediting Cash.

4. General Ledger:

  • The general ledger is a collection of all accounts and their balances. It provides a comprehensive view of a company's financial position.

  • Example: A Malaysian software development firm maintains a general ledger that shows the balances of its various accounts, including assets, liabilities, and equity.

5. Financial Statements:

  • Financial statements, including the Income Statement, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow Statement, provide a snapshot of a business's financial performance and position.

  • Example: A Malaysian restaurant prepares an Income Statement that outlines its revenues, expenses, and net income for the current year.

6. Accrual vs. Cash Basis Accounting:

  • Businesses can use either accrual accounting (recognizing revenue and expenses when earned/incurred) or cash basis accounting (when cash is received/paid).

  • Example: A Malaysian consulting firm follows accrual accounting, recording revenue when services are provided, even if payment is received later.

7. Assets, Liabilities, and Equity:

  • The accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) reflects a business's financial position. Assets are resources owned, liabilities are debts owed, and equity represents ownership.

  • Example: A Malaysian retail store's assets include cash, inventory, and equipment, while its liabilities may include accounts payable to suppliers.

8. Depreciation and Amortization:

  • Businesses account for the gradual loss of value of long-term assets (depreciation) and the allocation of costs of intangible assets (amortization) over time.

  • Example: A Malaysian construction company calculates and records the depreciation of its machinery to reflect its decreasing value over its useful life.

9. Trial Balance:

  • A trial balance is a list of all account balances to ensure that debits equal credits, serving as a preliminary step before preparing financial statements.

  • Example: A Malaysian architecture firm prepares a trial balance to confirm that the total debits and credits in the accounts match.

10. Compliance with Malaysian Regulations:

  • Businesses in Malaysia need to adhere to the Companies Act, Financial Reporting Standards, and other regulatory guidelines when preparing financial statements.

  • Example: A Malaysian tech startup ensures its financial statements are in line with the Malaysian Financial Reporting Standards (MFRS) for accurate reporting.

By understanding and applying these accounting basics, businesses in Malaysia can maintain accurate financial records, make informed decisions, and fulfill their financial reporting obligations. Consulting with certified accountants or financial advisors who are familiar with Malaysia's accounting regulations can further assist in ensuring compliance and effective financial management.

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